TORCH infections

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TORCH is the differential diagnosis for transplacentally aquired infections including Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simples.


  • Syphilis
    • Clincal findings include rash, rhinorrhea, anemia and ascites. Bony changes are present in 95% of patients but often not until 6-8 weeks after infection.
    • Radiographic findings include nonspecific metaphyseal lucent bands and periosteal reaction involving the long bones. Wimberger corner sign is specific, consistes of destruction of the medial portion of the proximal tibial metaphysis.


  • Cytomegalovirus
    • Periventricular calcifications
    • Migration anomalies