Respiratory distress syndrome
aka surfactant deficient disease, hyaline membrane disease
Most common cause of death of newborns, disease of premature, caused by inability of premature type II pneumocytes to produce surfactant.
- Low lung volumes
- Bilateral granular opacities representing collapsed alveoli and adjacent open alveoli
- Prominent air bronchograms.
If patients are intubated immediately their lungs may not show RDS changes but then it is more evident when extubated.
Differential but with Increased Lung Volume
- Meconium aspiration - chemical pneumonitis, post term
- Neonatal pneumonia - PROM, GBS
- Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) - delivered by c-section