Opportunistic infections (AIDS)

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Toxoplasmosis - Most common, multiple rim enhancing lesions in basal ganglia, may be hemorrhagic, eccentric nodule, surrounding edema, decreased on DWI


Cryptococcus - multiple gelatinous pseudocysts in basal ganglia, dilated perivascular spaces


Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) - JC virus, asymmeteric subcortical white matter T2 bright without much mass effect, does not have to be multifocal


TB - meningitis or tuberculoma


Viral Encephalitis - CMV (ependimitis), Herpes (temporal lobe, restricted diffusion), HIV (symmetric bilater periventricular white matter, CD4<100)


Cysticercosis - most common parasitic infection of CNS, from uncooked pork, multiple cystic lesions containing scolex (central dot), calcifications from healded lesions


Lymphoma - can be difficult to differentiate from Toxoplasmosis, but Lymphoma is hyperdense on CT (unlike toxo), demonstrates increased uptake on Thallium imaging (unlike toxo), eccentric target favors toxo