Line position

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Fetal Circulation

Umbilical Arterial Catheters (UAC): initially follow a downward course then should be positioned below L2 to prevent mesenteric or renal complications. Alternatively, the catheter could be placed above the diaphragm in the thoracic aorta between T6 and T9.

Umbilical Venous Catheters (UVC): should be positioned within 1 cm of the diaphragm for ideal placement in the IVC.

Esophageal pH Probe: ideally between 2-3 cm above GE junction

UAC, UVC and enteric tube

Right Mainstem Intubation

Esophageal Intubation
Esophageal Intubation
Esophageal Intubation

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